Characteristics and Feature of Escherichia Coli Gastroenteritis
Since its discovery in 1885, Escherichia coli was considered a risk-free, harmless, and safe gram negative, non-spore producing, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, and a normal flora of the gut of both warm blooded animals and human beings. Due to its usually present at an extremely elevated level , for a lengthy time it has been utilized as an guide organism for potential fecal contagion in addition to existence of enteric pathogen in water and food. 6Ever since mid years of 1940s, indication has accrued that certain Escherichia coli strains are the source of diarrhea, especially in children, and they were designated as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Today, evidence shows that more than one type of pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli exist.
2.0 Literature Review
2There are two major strains of Escherichia coli that are responsible for gastroenteritis in human beings and other warm blooded animals. These Strains are: enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC).
2.1 Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli
4EIEC strains are well-known source of dysentery comparable to that caused by shigella bacteria. The capability of this strain to generate an invasive factor is thought to be the source of gastroenteritis. 3Human carriers, indirectly or directly spread the disease. Intake of approximately 106 of these bacterial cells may result into an individual developing signs and symptoms of the disease. For example, an outburst in United States in the beginning of 1971 was identified from the use of imported Camembert cheese infected, contaminated, and tainted with 0124:B17.
2.1.1 Toxins, Disease, and symptoms of EIEC
6The enteroinvasive Escherichia coli strains produce a number of genes and polypeptides that are later encoded in a plasmid DNA. These are some of the invasive factors which facilitate the bacteria in invading epithelial cells, and thereby setting up infection within the colon. Detach toxins of this particular strain have not been identified so far.
Disease symptoms and signs are comparable to those in shigella infection. Subsequent to pathogen ingestion and incubation phase, symptoms or indications appear as profuse diarrhea, abdominal cramps, chills, headache, and fever. 5A great number of these pathogens find their way into feces through excretion. Symptoms can last between seven to twelve days. However an individual can remain a hauler and shed these disease causing organisms in feces for a lengthy period of time.
2.1.2 Food association
Only humans are known to be the host of these disease causing organisms, and food can get tainted either indirectly or directly through fecal contamination. 7Epidemics from the intake of foods infected, contaminated, tainted with the pathogens have been witnessed. The 1971 epidemic in United States from the intake of traded in cheese was hinted to contagion of the processing plant apparatus from a faulty water filtration system. During 1983, an additional outburst on a cruise ship was linked to potato salad tainted through a carrier food handler.
2.1.3 Prevention of EIEC
12This strain of Escherichia coli is highly susceptible to pasteurization temperature. Therefore appropriate heat treatment, refrigeration of a foodstuff shortly after preparation, and riddance of post heat contagion are essential in controlling the disease. Besides, appropriate sanitation at all phases of food handling and processing is an imperative factor. Persons alleged of being carriers ought to not handle food, particularly food that is ready for ingestion.
2.2 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli characteristics
The primary serotype linked to enterohemorrhagic colitis is Escherichia coli 0157:H7. Contrary to other Escherichia coli, this strain does not ferment sorbitol and lack glucuronidase activity. 2However, just like other Escherichia coli, it grows fast at between 30 to 42oC, grows unsuccessfully at between 44 to 45oC, and never grows at a temperature of 10oC and below. The strains of this subdivision of Escherichia coli have been identified to be resistant to PH of 4.5 and below. These disease causing organisms are damaged by pasteurization heat along with time and killed at approximately 63.3 oC in 9.6 seconds. The cells of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli can survive well in foodstuff at negative 20 oC. Escherichia coli 0157:H7 produces Shiga or Vero